NaQaa Nanotechnology Network NNN

Welcome to the first online free course in Nanotechnology

Course name : Introduction to Nanotechnology, Phase one.

Course duration: One day

Target group: All interested in Nanotechnology

Course price: free of Charge

The course: Part one

Introduction to Nanotechnology : phase one

 

The prefix “nano” comes from the Greek meaning “dwarf.” It is one billionth, which is expressed mathematically as 10-9 or 0.000000001. For example, a nanometer is 0.000000001 m. A human hair is 50,000-100,000 nm in width. A nanometer is about is about 75 to 100 times smaller than a virus. It’s about the size of 3-5 atoms.

Nano refers to the length scales involved, the nanometer or 10-9 meters length scale, where systems consist of only a few hundred or so atoms. Nanotechnology is a fundamentally new and different way of thinking about the creation of devices and systems. It is really a building of functionality from the most fundamental level of matter upward to the macroscopic system. More specifically, nanotechnology is the creation and utilization of materials, devices, and systems through the control of matter on the nanometer-length scale - the ability to engineer matter at the level of atoms, molecules, and supramolecular structures - and the generation of larger structures with fundamentally new molecular organizations exhibiting novel physical, chemical, and biological properties and phenomena.

Nanotechnology  is the study of manipulating matter on an atomic and molcular scale. Generally, nanotechnology deals with structures sized between 1 to 100 nanometer in at least one dimension, and involves developing materials or devices within that size.

 

 

 

Figure 1: The Nanoscale

Nanoscale materials have a large surface area for a given volume. The surface properties

dominate compared to bulk properties. Quantum phenomena becomes critical at reduced

length scales. In most cases, the change in behavior is not a simple extrapolation of bulk

behavior as we know. In materials where strong chemical bonding is present, delocation

of valence electrons can be extensive. The extent of delocalization can vary with the size

of the system. Structure also changes with the size. These two changes can lead to

different physical and chemical properties depending on size, for example, magnetic,

optical properties, melting point, specific heat, surface reactivity, bandgap, etc.

The goal of nanotechnology is to control individual atoms and molecules to create computer chips and other devices that are thousands of times smaller than current technologies permit. Beyond being used in computers andcommunication, nanotechnology could lead to advances in biosensors, biotechnology and medical devices to designer materials for use in myriad industries including aerospace, textiles, architecture, pollution control, efficient lighting and energy production.

The properties of  nanotechnology materials are often not predictable from the laws of classical physics and chemistry. The laws of electricity that apply to bigger things may not hold for nanotechnologymaterials. A material that conducts electricity at normal size may be an electrical insulator at nanotechnology  size, and vice versa.

If it seems that nanotechnology has begun to blossom in the last years, this is largely due to the development of new instruments that allow researchers to observe and manipulate matter at the nanolevel. Technologies such as scanning tunneling microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, and electron microscopy allow scientists to observe events at the atomic level. At the same time, economic pressures in the electronics industry have forced the development of new lithographic techniques that continue the steady reduction in feature size and cost.

 

Nanotechnology is distinguished by its interdisciplinary nature. For one thing, investigations at the nanolevel are occurring in a variety of academic fields. More

important, the most advanced research and product development increasingly requires

knowledge of disciplines that, until now, operated largely independently. These areas

include:

Physics — The construction of specific molecules is governed by the physical forces between the individual atoms composing them. Nanotechnology will involve the continued design of novel molecules for specific purposes. However, the laws of physics will continue to govern which atoms will interact with each other and in what way. In addition, researchers need to understand how quantum physics affects the behavior of matter below a certain scale.

Chemistry — The interaction of different molecules is governed by chemical forces. Nanotechnology will involve the controlled interaction of different molecules, often in solution. Understanding how different materials interact with each other is a crucial part of designing new nanomaterials to achieve a given purpose.

Biology — A major focus of nanotechnology is the creation of small devices capable of processing information and performing tasks on the nanoscale. The process by which information encoded in DNA is used to build proteins, which then go on to perform complex tasks including the building of more complex structures, offers one possible template. A better understanding of how biological systems work at the lowest level may allow future scientists to use similar processes to accomplish new

purposes. It is also a vital part of all research into medical applications.

Computer Science — Moore’s Law and its corollaries, the phenomena whereby the price performance, speed, and capacity of almost every component of the computer and communications industry has improved exponentially over the last several decades, has been accompanied by steady miniaturization. Continued decreases in transistor size face physical barriers including heat dissipation and electron tunneling that require new technologies to get around. In addition, a major issue for the

use of any nanodevices will be the need to exchange information with them. Finally, scientific advances will require the ability to manage increasingly large amounts of information collected from a large network of sensors.

Electrical Engineering — To operate independently, nanodevices will need a steady supply of power. Moving power into and out of devices at that scale represents a unique challenge. Within the field of information technology, control of electric signals is also vital to transistor switches and memory storage. A great deal of research is also going into developing nanotechnologies that can generate and manage power more efficiently.

Mechanical Engineering — Even at the nanolevel issues such as load bearing, wear, material fatigue, and lubrication still apply. Detailed knowledge of how to actually build devices that do what we want them to do with an acceptable level of confidence will be a critical component of future research.

 

You can then continue the free course with the suggested presentations:

 Introduction to Nanotechnology phase one presentation

You are welcome

 Important Note:

Certificate of course completion is available upon request.It is optional.

After you finish studying any of our online courses, you can send us an email that you would like to pass an Exam in the course. The exam will be sent to you by E-mail. If you get more than 70 marks out of 100 in the exam then you can order a certificate of completion carrying your title and name according to the following price rates:

  • For Egyptians: 15 Egyptian pounds for a PDF certificate form
  • 25 Egyptian pounds for a Hard cartoon certificate form delivered face to face
  • For other Nationalites: 10 US$ for a PDF certificate form
  • 20 US $ for a Hard cartoon certificate form but shipping and delivery fees are paid by the certificate receiver.

  • Certificates fees are to be paid by Vodaphone Cash at 01068084508 form inside Egypt or to this bank account from outside Egypt:
    Bank name: Faisal Islamic bank of Egypt

    Account Name: Wesam Ahmed Tawfik

    Bank branch: Dokkii branch

    Account number:23608

    SWIFT: FIEG EG CX DOK

    Bank address: 9 Adel Rostom street from Nile street – Dokkii


     

Welcome to the Second online free course in Nanotechnology

Course name: Introduction to Nanotechnology, Phase two

Course duration: One day

Target group: All interested in Nanotechnology

Course price: free of Charge 

The Course: Part 1

  

 

 

 Part 2

 

 

Welcome to the third online free course in Nanotechnology 

Course name : Introduction to Nanotechnology, Phase three

Course duration : One day

Target group: All interested  in Nanotechnology

Course price: Free of charge

The Course:

Nanotechnology is the manipulation or self-assembly of individual atoms, molecules, or molecular clusters into structures to create materials and devices with new or vastly properties. Nanotechnology can work from the top down (which means reducing the size of the smallest structures to the nanoscale e.g. photonics applications in nanoelectronics and nanoengineering) or the bottom up (which involves manipulating individual atoms and molecules into nanostructures and more closely resembles chemistry or biology). The definition of nanotechnology is based on the prefix “nano” which is from the Greek word meaning “dwarf”. In more technical terms, the word “nano” means 10-9, or one billionth of something. For comparison, a virus is roughly 100 nanometres (nm) in size. The word nanotechnology is generally used when referring to materials with the size of 0.1 to 100 nanometres, however it is also inherent that these materials should display different properties from bulk (or micrometric and larger) materials as a result of their size. These differences include physical strength, chemical reactivity, electrical conductance, magnetism,and optical effects. Nanotechnology refers to research and technology development at the atomic, molecular, and macromolecular scale, leading to the controlled manipulation and study of structures and devices with length scales in the 1- to 100-nanometers range. Objects at this scale, such as “nanoparticles,” have novel properties and functions that differ markedly from those seen in the bulk scale. The small size, surface tailorability, improved solubility, and multifunctionality of nanoparticles open many new research avenues for scientists. The synthesis of nanomaterials with uniform particle size is a subject of intensive research in recent times because of their fundamental scientific interest as well as for the technological importance. These nanomaterials exhibit very interesting electrical, optical, magnetic and chemical properties, which could not be achieved by their bulk counterparts. Nanomaterials may also be used in various technological applications viz. refrigeration systems, medical imaging, drug targeting and other biological applications, and catalysis. Nanoparticle materials have become the focus of increasing attention because the physical properties often differ significantly from those of the corresponding bulk material. Nanoparticles of metals, with a wide range of dimensions, are anticipated to yield sizedependent optical, electronic, magnetic and chemical properties suitable for applications in magnetic recording, optoelectronic devices, magnetic refrigeration, magnetic resonance imaging, as catalysts for bioprocessing.Nanotechnology will leave no field untouched by its ground breaking scientific innovations. The agricultural industry is no exception. So far, the use of nanotechnology in agriculture has been mostly theoretical, but it has begun and will continue to have a significant effect in the main areas of the food industry: development of new functional materials, product development, and design of methods and instrumentation for food safety and bio-security. The effects on society as a whole will be dramatic. The current global population is nearly 6 billion with 50% living in Asia. A large proportion of those living in developing countries face daily food shortages as a result of environmental impacts or political instability, while in the developed world there is a food surplus. For developing countries the drive is to develop drought and pest resistant crops, which also maximize yield. In developed countries, the food industry is driven by consumer demand which is currently for fresher and healthier foodstuffs. This is big business, for example the food industry in the UK is booming with an annual growth rate of 5.2%1 and the demand for fresh food has increased by 10% in the last few years. The potential of nanotechnology to revolutionise the health care, textile, materials,information and communication technology, and energy sectors has been well-publicised. In fact several products enabled by nanotechnology are already in the market, such as antibacterial dressings, transparent sunscreen lotions, stain-resistant fabrics, scratch free paints for cars, and self cleaning windows. The application of nanotechnology to the agricultural and food industries was first addressed by a United States Department of Agriculture roadmap published in September 2003.2 The prediction is that nanotechnology will transform the entire food industry, changing the way food is produced, processed, packaged, transported, and consumed.